Category Archives: Animal Anatomy

Hind limb lameness – immature Large breed dog

Approach to lameness Hip dysplasia Osteochondrosis (Patellar luxation) (Cranial cruciate ligament disease) Other causes –      Metaphyseal osteopathy –      Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism   Approach to the lame dog What are you trying to achieve? –      Why is the dog lame? Dx … Continue reading

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Canine Eye (fluid)

Function of eye = conversion of light energy to electrical energy and carried to brain by CN2 optic nerve. Eye is 3 layered wall which holds fluid and lens. The eye has 3 chambers = A. aqueous chamber (aqueous humor fluid), … Continue reading

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Canine tongue

Extends from oral cavity into oropharynx.  Muscular organ.  Covered with stratified squamous epithelium (heavier keratinized).  Covered with papillae types: 1. Filiform – soft protective.  Fungiform, foliate and vallate give taste in tongue.  Tip of tongue is apex and most caudal … Continue reading

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Topographical relationships of the canine heart

The coronary groove is external and about 1/3 down from greater vessel (division btw atria and ventricles).  Usually covered by fat and carries coronary vessels.  Auricles determine L from R and groves reflect internal septa.  Auricle surface is on the … Continue reading

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Equine larynx

Suspensory apparatus for tongue and larynx that is attached to skull at synovial joint and forms base of the larynx. The bones are: tympanohyoid, stylohyoid, epihyoid, ceratohyoid, basihyoid, thyrohyoid.  Horse has huge stylohyoid – visble in gutteral pouch.  Basihyoid has … Continue reading

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Paranasal sinuses in the Horse

  Sinuses are recesses that arose of outpocketing of nasal canal. They are spaces within the bones of the head and aligned with mucosal membrane. Not sure of function but probably help decrease weight of skull. Horse maxillary sinus is divided … Continue reading

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Avian Respiration

Internal Anatomy of chicken: The avian respiratory system delivers oxygen from the air to the tissues and also removes carbon dioxide. In addition, the respiratory system plays an important role in thermoregulation (maintaining normal body temperature). The avian respiratory system … Continue reading

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